There are two ways to download data from OSM, and they result in different formats of the OSM data. The Download OSM Data (XAPI) tool will download data from OSM and convert it into an .osm file (known as a ‘planet’ file). To use the .osm file in ArcMap, you must then run the ‘Load OSM File’ tool to translate it into a feature dataset. The Download and Symbolize OSM Data tool downloads the data from OSM into a feature dataset, ready to use in ArcMap. Both tools are described in this topic. Now you can use the downloaded OSM data just like any other data in ArcMap. See the Edit OSM Data and Upload to OSM topic if you want to edit the data and upload it back to OpenStreetMap. Note There are separate tools for downloading data to a PostgreSQL SDE repository. See Tools#postgresNote for details. The Download OSM Data (XAPI) tool will download data from an OSM xapi endpoint and convert it into an .osm file (known as a planet file). It is possible to filter what features are downloaded from the endpoint. To use the tool, follow the steps below. Source.