Mapping with GIS and Cartographic Software Overview of some CAC and GIS Software Products. The following table gives a short overview of the main CAC and GIS Software Products. Push Control + Right Mouse click to enlarge. Only pictures can be viewed in the PDF version! For Flash etc. see online version. Only screenshots of animations will be displayed. [link] Desktop Publishing Programs (DTP) Since the late 1980’s, several graphic programs have been developed independently of GIS desktop software. They are suitable for an aesthetical graphic presentation. In contrast to GIS desktop software, desktop publishing programs (DTP) are not designed for spatial analysis as objects have no attached thematic attributes and no database for geographical position information. The most popular DTP programs are • Adobe Illustrator • Marcromedia FreeHand • CorelDraw DTP programs generally work with stacked data layers, instead of a topological relation between attached element attributes. Therefore, the user has to identify and select identical objects in order to put them on a common separated layer. Thus, we can create different kinds of thematic maps by selecting certain layers. Only pictures can be viewed in the PDF version! For Flash etc. see online version. Only screenshots of animations will be displayed. [link] In Desktop Publishing Programs (DTP), maps are created with layers. On each layer we put identical element groups which, can be switched on or off according to the user’s needs. When we import a map that has been prepared and presented in ArcView into the DTP program FreeHand, we lose the attached data attributes. It is possible to use a software extension (e.g. MAPublisher) in order to retain the attached data attributes. Using the attached database information we can attribute colours to the different land use zones on the map automatically. These different adaptation steps from the ArcView map up to the final cartographic presentation in FreeHand are shown in the following three views. ArcView – hidden attributes. This figure shows the contour lines of a land use map hiding the data set of attached attributes. The map has been created in ArcView (Desktop GIS). http://www.gitta.info – Version from: 5.5.2010 4 Mapping with GIS and Cartographic Software FreeHand – initial cartographic representation. By using the extension MAPublisher, we can import the map from ArcView into FreeHand. Thanks to such extensions, we do not lose attached attributes during the data import. This is important for the identification of elements with identical attributes (e.g. forest). Once identical elements have been identified, they are grouped automatically, coloured and put on separate layers. Furthermore, FreeHand allows a selected area to be viewed. FreeHand – with base map and transparent layers. For the final cartographic presentation, the following adaptations have been made: • Colours have been chosen according to the final presentation. • A new digitised and generalised base-map layer has been attached to the thematic map. • Relevant map elements have been symbolised. More complex symbols such as dashed lines, double outlines and asymmetric symbols have been adjusted. • Adaptations for a consistent legend and layout have been made. Computer Aided Design Programs (CAD) Computer Aided Design Programs (CADs) are overall mapping toolboxes that fill the gap between the more simple Desktop Publishing Programs DTP complex Geographic Information Systems GIS. In a strict sense CAD programs process lines by modification of their graphic properties (such as line width and line character). Such line elements can be modified individually on different layers. The program combines standards of data visualisation overall database interfaces with a powerful spatial analysis engine and with object attributes. If spatial information are available, CAD programs are with georeferenced data. Options for data import, data management, data and data visualisation are integrated in CAD. Furthermore, they have combined vector data with layers of raster data or non-spatial attributes. Two well-known CAD programs are: • Microstation • AutoCAD Initially, the CAD programs Microstation and AutoCAD were conceived for mechanical engineering, but the options have been expanded for other sectors and are often used for digital cartography. CAD programs are difficult to learn for beginners, which is a major disadvantage of this software. For this reason, CAD programs are not as user-friendly as other cartographic software (e.g. mapping programs, which are more convenient for cartographic purposes) (Dickman et al. 1999). The following examples show the different ways of visualisation of vector and raster data in Microstation: http://www.gitta.info – Version from: 5.5.2010 5 Source.