How do languages form relative clauses like “the man that ate bread went home”.
- Relative pronoun/particle/complementizer – “the man [that/who ate bread] went home”. Typical of Indo-European, Uralic and Semitic languages. If
- Correlative relative (non-reduction) – “the man [who ate bread], [that man] went home or “the man [he ate bread] went home” – this strategy involves an anaphor, repeating the antecedent with a noun/pronoun. Pronoun retention is also lumped in here. This strategy occurs in Indo-Aryan languages (Hindi, Bengali, Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi, etc.), in Mande languages (e.g Bambara in Mali), Yoruba, Lakhota, Warao, Xerente, Walpiri, etc.
- Nominalized/participial relative – “the [bread eating] man went home” or “the [bread eaten] man went home” – I lumped this two together because the behaviour is very similar – used in Turkic, Mongolic, Koreanic, Dravidian, and Bantu languages.
- Genitive relative – “[ate bread]’s man went home” – used in Sino-Tibetan, Khmer, Tagalog, Minangkabau, and Aymara.
- Relative affix – “the man [ate-REL bread] went home” – used in Seri, Northwest and Northeast Caucasian languages and Maale (Omotic).
- Adjunction – “the man [ate bread] went home”, with no overt marker just justapositions modifying the main clause. Used in Japanese, Thai, Shan, Lao, Malagasy.
- Internally headed relative – “[the man ate the bread] went home”, the nucleous is in the relative clause itself. Used in Navajo, Apache, Haida.
If you know about the languages left in blank, please let me know!