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Austria German: Österreich, officially the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich, About this sound listen (help·info)), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The territory of Austria covers 83,879 square kilometres (32,386 sq mi). The terrain is highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 metres (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 metres (12,461 ft). The majority of the population speak local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, and Austrian German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.
The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty when the vast majority of the country was a part of the Holy Roman Empire. From the time of the Reformation, many Northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. The Thirty Years War, the influence of the Kingdom of Sweden and Kingdom of France, the rise of the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Napoleonic invasions all weakened the power of the Emperor in the north of Germany, but in the south, and in non-German areas of the Empire, the Emperor and Catholicism maintained control. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Austria retained its position as one of the great powers of Europe and, in response to the coronation of Napoleon as the Emperor of the French, the Austrian Empire was officially proclaimed in 1804. Following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia emerged as Austria's chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany. Austria's defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany. In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary. After the defeat of France in the 1870-1 Franco-Prussian War, Austria was excluded from the new German Empire, although in the following decades its politics, and its foreign policy, increasingly converged with those of the Prussian-led Empire. During the 1914 July Crisis that followed the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria vector maps, Germany guided Austria in issuing the ultimatum to Serbia that led to the declaration of World War I.
After the collapse of the Habsburg (Austro-Hungarian) Empire in 1918 at the end of World War I, Austria adopted and used the name the Republic of German-Austria (Deutschösterreich), later changed to Österreich, in an attempt at union with Germany, but this was forbidden under the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919). The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919. In the 1938 Anschluss, Austria was annexed to Nazi Germany. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies and Austria's printable map former democratic constitution was restored. In 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral.
Today, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724[when?]. The country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index. Austria editable map has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, and is a founder of the OECD. Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999.
Geography of Austria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Geography of Austria
Region Central Europe
Coordinates 47°20′N 13°20′ECoordinates: 47°20′N 13°20′E
Area Ranked 114th
83,879 km2 (32,385 mi²)
Coastline 0 km (0 mi; landlocked)
Borders 2,534 km (1,574 mi)
Czech Republic 402 km (249 mi)
Germany 801 km (497 mi)
Hungary 331 km (205 mi)
Italy 404 km (251 mi)
Liechtenstein (non-EU) 34 km (21 mi)
Slovakia 105 km (65 mi)
Slovenia 299 km (185 mi)
Switzerland (non-EU) 158 km (98 mi) Highest point Grossglockner
Lowest point Neusiedler See
Longest river Danube River
Largest lake Neusiedler See
Austria is a small, predominantly mountainous country in Central Europe, approximately between Germany, Italy and Hungary. It has a total area of 83,879 km² (32,385 mi²), about twice the size of Switzerland and slightly smaller than the state of Maine.
The landlocked country shares national borders with Switzerland (a non-European Union member state, which it borders for 158 km, or 98 mi) and the principality of Liechtenstein (also a non-EU member state, of which it borders for 34 km or 21 mi) to the west, Germany (801 km or 497 mi) and the Czech Republic (402 km or 249 mi) and Slovakia (105 km or 65 mi) to the north, Hungary to the east (331 km or 205 mi), and Slovenia (299 km or 185 mi) and Italy (404 km or 251 mi) to the south (total: 2,534 km or 1,574 mi).
The westernmost third of the somewhat pear-shaped country consists of a narrow corridor between Germany and Italy that is between 32 km (19 mi) and 60 km (37 mi) wide. The rest of Austria map for Illustrator lies to the east and has a maximum north–south width of 280 km (173 mi). The country measures almost 600 km (372 mi) in length, extending from Lake Constance (German Bodensee) on the Austrian-Swiss-German border in the west to the Neusiedler See on the Austrian-Hungarian border in the east. The contrast between these two lakes – one in the Alps and the other a typical steppe lake on the westernmost fringe of the Hungarian Plain – illustrates the diversity of Austria's landscape.
Seven of Austria's nine provinces have long historical traditions predating the establishment of the Republic of Austria in 1918: Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Salzburg, Tyrol, and Vorarlberg. The provinces of Burgenland and Vienna were established after World War I. Most of Burgenland had been part of the Kingdom of Hungary, but it had a predominantly German-speaking population and hence became Austrian. Administrative and ideological reasons played a role in the establishment of Vienna as an independent province. Vienna, historically the capital of Lower Austria, was a socialist stronghold, whereas Lower Austria was conservative, and both socialists and conservatives wanted to consolidate their influence in their respective provinces. Each province has a provincial capital with the exception of Vienna, which is a province in its own right in addition to being the federal capital. In Vienna, the City Council and the mayor function as a provincial parliament and provincial governor, respectively.
Landform regions of Austria
Geographic coordinates: 47°20′N 13°20′E
Austria may be divided into three unequal geographical areas. The largest part of Austria (62%) is occupied by the relatively young mountains of the Alps, but in the east, these give way to a part of the Pannonian plain, and north of the Danube Riverlies the Bohemian Forest, an older, but lower, granite mountain range.
The Danube has its source near Donaueschingen in southwestern Germany and flows through Austria scalable map before emptying into the Black Sea. It is the only major European river that flows eastwards, and its importance as an inland waterway has been enhanced by the completion in 1992 of the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal in Bavaria, which connects the Rhine and Main rivers with the Danube and makes barge traffic from the North Sea to the Black Sea possible.
The major rivers north of the watershed of the Austrian Alps (the Inn in Tyrol, the Salzach in Salzburg, and the Enns in Styria and Upper Austria) are direct tributaries of the Danube and flow north into the Danube valley, whereas the rivers south of the watershed in central and eastern Austria (the Gail and Drau rivers in Carinthia and the Mürz and Mur rivers in Styria) flow south into the drainage system of the Drau, which eventually empties into the Danube in Serbia. Consequently, central and eastern Austria are geographically oriented away from the watershed of the Alps: the provinces of Upper Austria and Lower Austria toward the Danube and the provinces of Carinthia and Styria toward the Drau.
Three major ranges of the Alps – the Northern Calcareous Alps, Central Alps, and Southern Calcareous Alps – run west to east through Austria. The Central Alps, which consist largely of a granite base, are the largest and highest ranges in Austria. The Central Alps run from Tyrol to approximately the Styria-Lower Austria border and include areas that are permanently glaciated in the Ötztal Alps on the Tyrolean–Italian border and the High Tauern in East Tyrol and Carinthia. The Northern Calcareous Alps, which run from Vorarlberg through Tyrol into Salzburg along the German border and through Upper Austria and Lower Austria toward Vienna, and the Southern Calcareous Alps, on the Carinthia-Slovenia border, are predominantly limestone and dolomite. At 3,797 m, Großglockner is the highest mountain in Austria. As a general rule, the farther east the Northern and Central Alps run, the lower they become. The altitude of the mountains also drops north and south of the central ranges.
As a geographic feature, the Alps literally overshadow other landform regions. Just over 28% of Austria is moderately hilly or flat: the Northern Alpine Foreland, which includes the Danube Valley; the lowlands and hilly regions in northeastern and eastern Austria, which include the Danube Basin; and the rolling hills and lowlands of the Southeastern Alpine Foreland. The parts of Austria that are most suitable for settlement – that is, arable and climatically favorable – run north of the Alps through the provinces of Upper Austria and Lower Austria in the Danube Valley and then curve east and south of the Alps through Lower Austria, Vienna, Burgenland, and Styria. Austria's least mountainous landscape is southeast of the low Leithagebirge, which forms the southern lip of the Viennese Basin, where the steppe of the Hungarian Plain begins.
Bohemian Forest (mountain range)
The granite massif of the Bohemian Forest (known in German as the Böhmerwald), a low mountain range with bare and windswept plateaus and a harsh climate, is located north of the Danube Valley and covers the remaining 10% of Austria's area. Notable is the Manhartsberg a granite ridge which separates Waldviertel from Weinviertel.
The 35 highest mountains in Austria:
Name Height Range
1 Großglockner 3,797 m High Tauern
2 Wildspitze 3,772 m Ötztal Alps
3 Kleinglockner 3,770 m High Tauern
4 Weißkugel 3,739 m Ötztal Alps
5 Pöschlturm 3,721 m High Tauern
6 Hörtnagelturm 3,719 m High Tauern
7 Hofmannspitze 3,711 m High Tauern
8 Weitzenböckturm 3,702 m High Tauern
9 Draschturm 3,701 m High Tauern
10 Gerinturm 3,700 m High Tauern
11 Glocknerhorn 3,680 m High Tauern
12 Teufelshorn 3,677 m High Tauern
13 Großvenediger 3,674 m High Tauern
14 Hinterer Brochkogel 3,628 m Ötztal Alps
15 Hintere Schwärze 3,628 m Ötztal Alps
16 Similaun 3,606 m Ötztal Alps
17 Großes Wiesbachhorn 3,564 m High Tauern
18 Rainerhorn 3,560 m High Tauern
19 Ötztaler Urkund 3,556 m Ötztal Alps
20 Marzellspitze 3,555 m Ötztal Alps
21 Ramolkogel 3,550 m Ötztal Alps
22 Schalfkogel 3,540 m Ötztal Alps
23 Watzespitze 3,533 m Ötztal Alps
24 Hochvernagtspitze 3,530 m Ötztal Alps
25 Langtaufererspitze 3,529 m Ötztal Alps
26 Weißseespitze 3,526 m Ötztal Alps
27 Mutmalspitze 3,522 m Ötztal Alps
28 Fineilspitze 3,516 m Ötztal Alps
29 Innere Querspitze 3,515 m Ötztal Alps
30 Hochfeiler 3,510 m Zillertal Alps
31 Teufelskamp 3,509 m High Tauern
32 Romariswandkopf 3,508 m High Tauern
33 Zuckerhütl 3,505 m Stubai Alps
34 Hohes Aderl 3,504 m High Tauern
35 Fluchtkogel 3,500 m Ötztal Alps
(All heights are related to the 1875 Trieste tide gauge used in Austria - metres above the Adriatic)
Westernmost point: River Rhine (at tripoint border of Austria, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein), Feldkirch, Vorarlberg, 47°16′16″N 9°31′51″E, but note that the international borders between Austria, Germany and Switzerland are not agreed for Lake Constance.
Westernmost settlement: Feldkirch, Vorarlberg, 47°15′56″N 9°32′42″E
Easternmost point: the corner of a field in Deutsch Jahrndorf, Burgenland, 48°0′24″N 17°9′38″E
Easternmost settlement: Deutsch Jahrndorf, Burgenland, 48°0′37″N 17°6′33″E
Northernmost point: the Neumühlbach stream, near Rottal, Haugschlag, Lower Austria, 49°1′14″N 15°1′16″E
Northernmost settlement: Haugschlag, Lower Austria, 48°59′51″N 15°3′32″E
Southernmost point: in the Steiner Alpen, Eisenkappel-Vellach, Carinthia, between the Seeländer Sattel and the Sanntaler Sattel, at an altitude of more than 2000 m, 46°22′21″N 14°33′55″E
Southernmost settlement: Eisenkappel-Vellach, Carinthia, 46°25′37″N 14°32′58″E
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