Cylindrical Equal-Area projections have straight meridians and parallels, the meridians are equally spaced, the parallels unequally spaced. There are normal, transverse, and oblique cylindrical equal-area projections. Scale is true along the central line (the equator for normal, the central meridian for transverse, and a selected line for oblique) and along two lines equidistant from the central line. Shape and scale distortions increase near points 90 degrees from the central line. The Mercator projection has straight meridians and parallels that intersect at right angles. Scale is true at the equator or at two standard parallels equidistant from the equator. The projection is often used for marine navigation because all straight lines on the map are lines of constant azimuth. The Miller projection has straight meridians and parallels that meet at right angles, but straight lines are not of constant azimuth. Shapes and areas are distorted. Directions are true only along the equator. The projection avoids the scale exaggerations of the Mercator map. As was the case with azimuthal projections, the spacing between parallels can be modified to produce an equidistant projection. On this projection, parallels of latitude are equally spaced along meridians, the distance between parallels being equal to the arc length between parallels on the generating globe. Distances measured along the Equator (tangent case) or standard parallels (secant case) and distances measured along any meridian are true to scale. However, other distances are distorted. The cylindrical equidistant projection is also called an equirectangular projection or plate carre. The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection is used to define horizontal, positions world-wide by dividing the surface of the Earth into 6 degree zones, each mapped by the Transverse Mercator projection with a central meridian in the center of the zone. UTM zone numbers designate 6 degree longitudinal strips extending from 80 degrees South latitude to 84 degrees North latitude. UTM zone characters designate 8 degree zones extending north and south from the equator. Transverse Mercator projections result from projecting the sphere onto a cylinder tangent to a central meridian. Transverse Mercator maps are often used to portray areas with larger north-south than east-west extent. Distortion of scale, distance, direction and area increase away from the central meridian. Many national grid systems are based on the Transverse Mercator projection. This cylindrical projection was developed in 1745 by C. F. Cassini for the survey of France. It is occasionally called Cassini-Soldner since the latter provided the more accurate mathematical analysis that led to the development of the ellipsoidal formulae. The projection is neither conformal nor equal-area, and behaves as a compromise between the two end-members. The distortion is zero along the central meridian. It is best suited for mapping regions of north-south extent. The central meridian, each meridian 90 away, and equator are straight lines, all other meridians and parallels are complex curves. Source.