Central Asia is a vast region with no access to the ocean. All sources include countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Many also include Mongolia, part of China, Punjab, Kashmir, and Northern India. A specific feature of the region of Central Asia is the intra-material position with mountains on the outskirts, protecting it along the perimeter.
Central Asia includes desert and semi-desert plains, highlands, and plateaus.
Limited: in the East the southern part of the greater Hinggan and Taihang,
in the South-the longitudinal tectonic depression of the upper Indus and Brahmaputra (Tsangpo),
in the West and North, the border of Central Asia corresponds to the mountain ranges of Eastern Kazakhstan, Altai, Western and Eastern Sayan.
The area of Central Asia according to various estimates is from 5 to 6 million sq. km. the Population of Central Asia are of Mongolian peoples, the Chinese, the Uighurs, the Tibetans, etc. the Topography of Central Asia is characterized by significant spot elevations, and there are two main tiers. On the lower level (500-1500 m above sea level) located in the Gobi desert, Alashan, Ordos, Junggar and Tarim valley. The upper tier is the Tibetan plateau, the average height of which increases to 4-4. 5 thousand m. and the highest points of the Tien Shan, Karakorum, Kunlun mountains reach 6-7 thousand m.
Central Asia is unevenly populated. Mature people are mostly river valleys and mountain gorges, where the water was. In the North, areas with a favorable climate have a large area, there is more area of inhabited lands (Kazakhstan virgin lands). But in General, within the region, large areas do not have a permanent population. The reason for all the lack of water.
Scientists believe that the first nomadic state in the region was created by the Scythians. But who were these Scythians are still arguing. According to scientists, the Scythian tribes lived in a state of fragmentation. They created a power called the Huns (209 BC).93 ad), which was the first Empire of the nomadic peoples of the world.
Central Asia. CLIMATE
In winter, Central Asia is dominated by anticyclones, and in summer— low atmospheric pressure with a predominance of arid air masses that came from the ocean, but lost moisture on such a long way. The climate is continental, dry, temperature fluctuations are significant both during the season and during the day. Average January temperatures on the plains -10 to -25 °C, July 20 to 25 °C). Annual precipitation on the plains in some places is sometimes less volatile. The greatest amount of precipitation falls in summer. There is more rainfall in the mountain ranges than in the plains. Central Asia is characterized by strong winds and Sunny days (240-270 per year).
In most of the plains of Central Asia, sparse vegetation, vegetation is desert and semi-desert, its species composition is poor. Dominated by shrubs. Significant areas of takyrs, salt marshes, loose Sands in General or almost devoid of vegetation.
On the Tibetan plateau, the vegetation is often represented creeping bushes of Eurotia, and in the hollows which are sheltered from cold winds: sedge, cobresia, reamuria, bluegrass, and fescue.
Central Asia vegetation
In the North, semi-deserts, and deserts turn into steppes. On the Northern slopes of the mountains, there are areas of coniferous forests of spruce, fir, larch. In the valleys of many transit rivers (Tarim, Khotan, Aksu, Konchedarya), in deserts and in the foothills of oases — bands of tugai forests with a predominance of poplar, Loch and sea buckthorn. On the banks of reservoirs — reed and reed thickets.
The most common large animals of the Central Asian ungulates, i.e. horses, camels, sheep, etc. Also, there are many rodents. In the deserts of Northwest China and Mongolia meet Kulan, Przewalski’s horse, Gazelle, hare, marmots, jerboas, pikas, gerbils, etc. On the Tibetan plateau wild Yak, wild ass, antelope orongo and hell, mountain goats and sheep, pikas, marmots, voles, etc. Of ubiquitous predators Wolf, Fox, Korsak, etc.