Basic concepts, databases of physical environment (geological, morphological, hydrological, pedological, meteoroligocal, climatological, vegetation and land cover databases). Databases of social environment (settlements, population, agriculture, industry, mining, energy, trade, public utilities, tourism). The lectures provide systematicl studies on the general characteristics of GIS softwares in order to improve the students existing knowledge about certain fields of GIS. Within the frames of this lecture the students get acquainted with two widely used GIS softwares, ArcGIS and ERDAS. The lectures focus on problems which are solved during the laboratory practises. In the first part of the semester the students primarily learn about vector databases and related tasks. They get acquainted with the advantages, the limits and the structure of vector data. We study when it is useful to create vector databases and how to handle them in ArcGIS. In the second part of the semester the students deepen their knowledge in connection with raster databases on the basis of their previous studies. The main attributes, advantages and disadvantages are taken into account and then we analyze the cases when it is practical to configure these types of databases. The advantages of ERDAS application and the fields of practical use are also studied. The aim of the subject is to teach practical skills for using the two main GIS softwares working with raster and vector databases. The general properties, construction and menu of ArcGIS. Comparison with other softwares. Working out solutions to the problems raised at the lectures. Generating vector databases, putting data into databases, forming and editing geometric objects. Importing external databases and linking data tables. Creating digital thematic maps. Intensive studies into raster databases in the second part of the semester as well as studying satellite remote sensing practises using ERDAS software. Understanding the software environment and its general characteristics. Creating raster databases, detaled discussion of their properties, database editing. Mathematic operations with raster databases. Pre-processing of satellite images, quality improvement, digital interpretation. Problem solving in raster data environment. The purpose of the course is to acquire the basis of the modeling and designing relational database, the SQL language, the foundation of the object related and object oriented data models and the geographical information systems. The course introduces the principles and practical questions of relational database modeling and design. Functional dependency, normalization. Manipulation of the data. Relational algebra, SQL. The goal of this course is to use the management of databases in geography through specialized softwares. Recently different data types and databases are important in geographical examinations and monitoring. The aim of the course: Students must be able to costumize the GIS software environment to their professional needs, to plan, to carry out and to document personal applications. Within the frames of specialized programming the students get acquainted with the prospects of vector and raster data analysis according to application of projection and reference systems. During the practises they learn about linking to databases (ODBC, SQL server) and prospects of spatially-indexed data management. The lecture focus on custom visualization, prospects of costumization and automatization, printing from programs and documentary requirements of applications. Understanding the basic language, handling the layers, connection and analysis of tables and shapes, application of files, utilization of drawn objects, spatial analysis, creating extensions, communication between scripts, connection with other applications, database connection and ODBC, layout handling (printing conventions), exportation possibilities, 3D data management. Physical Response: wired and wireless transmission, terrestrial and satellite communications, optical transmission basics. Source.