You are using an outdated version of Firefox which is not supported by ResearchGate anymore. For a faster, safer browsing experience, Fig. 10. Simplified paleogeographic map (Miller cylindrical projection) of the western Indian Ocean in the Maastrichtian (67.7 Ma). The paleo-shorelines depicted in Fig. 9a are shown. Present-day bathymetric charts and geological information suggest that the islands and shallow ground on the Providence Bank and Amirante Ridge may in the Late Cretaceous have provided a terrestrial conduit between northern Madagascar – Seychelles – western India (see Sections 5 and 13.1). However, it is reiterated that such a passage almost certainly included a number of marine barriers in the form of shallow seas and deep oceans. Incidentally, the direct route between Madagascar and India would have involved a sea crossing of 800 – 900 km. Ali, J. R. and J. C. Aitchison. Gondwana to Asia: plate tectonics, paleogeography and the biological connectivity of the Indian sub-continent from the Middle Jurassic through latest Eocene (166-35 Ma). Earth-Science Reviews One of the great conundrums faced by biogeographers and paleontologists concerns the Indian sub-continent’s biological connectivity with the other Indian Ocean-rimming landmasses ( Fig. 1) during the… Source.