Map: The death toll in the First World War in European countries
FIRST WORLD WAR
The first world war began on August 1, 1914. It lasted more than 4 years (ended November 11, 1918), it was attended by 38 States, on its fields fought more than 74 million people, of which 10 million were killed and 20 million mutilated. This war led to the collapse of the most powerful European States and the formation of a new political situation in the World.
On the eve of the war, relations between the strongest countries — England and Germany – worsened. Their rivalry turned into a fierce struggle for supremacy in the world, for the seizure of new territories. There were also alliances of States that were at war with each other.
The reason for the war was the murder on June 28, 1914, in Sarajevo (in Bosnia on the Balkan Peninsula) of the heir to the throne of the Austro–Hungarian Empire Franz Ferdinand. As a result, Austria-Hungary in a month declared war on Serbia. Germany declared war on Russia on August 1, France and Belgium on August 3, and England declared war on Germany on August 4. Most countries of the world were involved in the war. On the side of the Entente (England, France, Russia) — 34 States on the side of Germany and Austria — 4. Military operations covered the territory of Europe, Asia, and Africa, which were conducted on all oceans and many seas. The mainland fronts in Europe, which decided the outcome of the war, were Western (in France) and Eastern (in Russia).
In August 1914, German troops were almost at Paris, where bloody battles were fought. From the border of Switzerland to the North sea stretches the line of a continuous front. But Germany’s calculation of a quick defeat of France failed. 23 August declared war on Germany, Japan, in October on the German side entered the war Turkey. It became clear that the war was taking a long time.
In the rear in many countries, people are faced with the need, no longer enough food. The situation of the peoples, especially the Warring States, has deteriorated dramatically. To change the course of the war, Germany decided to use a new type of weapon — poisonous gases.
It was very difficult to fight on two fronts. In October 1917, a revolution took place in Russia, and it came out of the war by signing a Peace Treaty with Germany. But this did not help Germany too much, its offensive on the Western front in 1918 failed.
In August-September, the allied armies, using their superiority in troops and equipment (in March 1918, the Western front began to receive troops from the United States, which entered the war in 1917), went on the offensive and forced the German troops to leave the territory of France.
In early October, the situation in Germany became hopeless. The defeat at the front, the devastation has led to a revolution in Germany. 9 Nov the monarchy, it was overthrown, and November 11, Germany had admitted defeat. The final terms of the peace treaties with Germany and its allies were signed at the Paris conference of 1919-20. Germany paid the winners large sums of compensation (except for Russia, which after the October revolution withdrew from the Entente). In 1918 fell apart and Austria–Hungary.
The first world war changed the whole map of Europe.