Maps are the canvases on which you display your spatial data. You can store as many maps as you need in the same project, and you can open multiple maps at once and view them side by side. This means you can look at the same data in 2D and 3D simultaneously. Maps can be converted to new 3D scenes, or vice versa, to present the information in another view type. When you convert a map to a scene, for example, the existing map is unchanged, and the new scene is created in the project to represent the 3D data. You should consider the perspective when authoring the map and its symbology, so conversion alone may not make the new map useful. Scenes can be opened in either a global view, which portrays the data in a full world view on a surface, or a local view, which presents a 3D view of a projected coordinate system. Global scenes are best suited for global datasets or situations where you want to move from a global to a regional view. The coordinate system for a global scene can only be WGS84. Local scenes are for content where a fixed cube of information best portrays the information, such as for a mineral exploration or construction project. Local scenes can use any coordinate system. Both global and local views support subsurface viewing. , which is the fundamental building block of a map. Layers represent a particular theme of information in a map, such as roads, buildings, habitat types, or administrative boundaries. You can add a layer to multiple maps, for example, you might use the same imagery as the underlying backdrop for many maps. Layers can represent different kinds of content, including vector-based features, rasters, and web content, and be from many different underlying data sources, such as a database or a server. you can use in your map. Several of these templates are designed for simple map note taking on top of your map, while others are intended for use in particular industries. , which you can use to turn layers on and off, access information about them, and rearrange which layers draw on top of others layers. Because scenes can contain both 2D and 3D data, these categories are reflected in groupings in the pane. In a scene, 2D layers are draped over a surface as a map on a ground, but 3D layers have additional capabilities, such as vertical extrusion. pane to select a layer and display a contextual tab set on the ribbon with settings for symbology, labeling, and the underlying attribute data, including the fields. While layers have spatial data, you can also add tables to maps. Tables are also listed in the pane and contain data presented in a tabular view so rows and columns can be viewed, selected, edited, and queried. You can use the to show the same location during navigation. When linked, you can pan or zoom one map and the extent changes in other maps to match. After you find a location you want to return to later, create a bookmark to persist it. uses the same pop-up style as other ArcGIS applications, so maps can be designed for presenting information prior to sharing and publishing them. You can also . A layout can contain maps and scenes, with scenes providing a way to portray 3D data on a printed 2D page. A project can contain as many layouts as necessary. You can , including items such as scale bars, scale text, north arrows, and legends. These map surround elements link to a map and update their appearance as the view updates. You can is a Python scripting module you can use to manipulate the contents of projects and layer files and automate exporting and printing. Geoprocessing capabilities also enable easier data processing, such as performing cartographic generalization, where large volumes of feature-level updates are required. Source.