The Middle East covers the territory of Western Asia and North-East Africa. The process of forming a modern political map of the region began after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. It was then in 1923 that the Turkish Republic was formed, as well as a number of well — known territories-Palestine, Iraq, Transjordania, Syria, Lebanon. At first, these territories were ruled by Great Britain and France under the League of Nations mandate. Only in 1930s-1940s, they gained independence. The second wave of formation of new States in the Middle East took place in the 1960s-1970s when the former British protectorates gained sovereignty in the Arabian Peninsula.
The Middle East is so fragmented now by contradictions, disputes, and wars that it is very difficult to pick up for the region some uniform description. Most people associate it with deserts and Arabs.
But it was the Middle East that became the cradle of three monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. At present, however, the vast majority of the population of all countries, with the exception of Israel, profess Islam. And Islam, or rather its course, is the cause of wars in some cases.
The main population of the region: Arabs, Persians, Armenians, Turks, Kurds, Azerbaijanis, Jews, Georgians, and Assyrians. The main route from Europe and Africa to Asia runs through the Middle East. Or no longer adjacent, or rather blocked. During the cold war, the Middle East became a theater of ideological struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union. Although the USSR no longer exists — the struggle continues.
The climate is mostly arid, there are only a few large rivers that are used for irrigation.
THE MIDDLE EAST TODAY
Today, the region is politically unstable. The confrontation of forces, wars, terrorist attacks are urgent problems for the countries of the Middle East. Everyone is aware of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, the consequences of the war in Iraq, the war in Syria, the unstable situation in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
See for yourself the list of countries in the region below. In some of them for a long time, no one thought to go to some (Turkey and Egypt) people from Russia and CIS countries recently flew in droves on vacation. Now do not fly, but especially desperate get through Belarus or the like because there are no flights from Russia.
The countries of the Middle East include: