Northern Europe: all these countries are geographically located by the sea. The seas have a great influence on both climate and economic activity. Cities and capitals of these States are located mainly along the coast, they are home to the majority of the population and the main part of the industry is concentrated here.
The landscape of Northern Europe is mostly mountainous. The old Scandinavian mountains stretch out on The Scandinavian Peninsula along the coast of the Norwegian Sea. The rest of the territory is occupied by plains, which lie on the Baltic crystalline base of the shield-ancient platform.
The surface outcrops of the igneous and metamorphic basement rocks — granite, gneiss, and quartzite. Therefore, everywhere the soil layer is thin, from under which numerous rocks and boulders protrude. Iceland has a peculiar relief – “the Country of fire and ice”. The island is a young area of the earth’s crust, where there are numerous geysers and volcanoes. Hekla volcano is especially active. Iceland’s most active volcanic region of the planet.
In the past, as a result of the cooling of the climate, Northern Europe was covered by a glacier. Moving, huge masses of ice-polished rocks, smoothed the earth’s surface, formed glacial deposits-moraines. On the plains, glacier brought huge boulders. The result of the long glaciation is the fjords-narrow, winding, deep sea bays with high steep banks, which cut the coast of the Scandinavian Peninsula. They were formed as a result of flooding by the sea of river valleys and depressions deepened by the glacier.
Northern Europe. CLIMATE
Despite its Northern location in the temperate and subarctic zones, it is less severe than in the North of Russia. It softens the heat of the North Atlantic current. Winter there is surprisingly warm enough, and summer, on the contrary, cool. Wet winds from the Atlantic ocean cause cloudy, cloudy weather with rain and fog.
Due to a large amount of precipitation (more than 1 000 mm/year) Northern Europe is rich in inland waters. Rivers, though not always full-flowing, very short. In their beds, there are many rapids and waterfalls, and the current is very rough. Such rivers cannot be used for navigation. But their rapid flow is a source of cheap electricity, so the rivers are building hydropower. Numerous are small and large lakes that occupy the glacier Plowed basin.
Northern Europe is a land of forests. Although part of it is occupied by the tundra, on large areas of common taiga-pine and spruce forests with a touch of birch.
The natural features of Northern Europe have left their mark on the cultural traditions of the population. And now popular folk songs, dances and fairy tales, where the heroes are trolls — supernatural beings in the form of little men. Often on various holidays, you can see folk costumes handmade.