Relief map of the Arctic Ocean
Arctic ocean map
- The area of the ocean – 14.7 million sq km;
- Maximum depth of 5527 m;
- A number of the seas – 11;
- The largest sea – Greenland sea, Norwegian sea, Kara sea, Beaufort sea;
- The largest Bay – Hudson Bay (Hudson);
- The largest Islands are Greenland, Spitsbergen, Novaya Zemlya;
The strong currents:
warm – Norwegian, Spitsbergen;
cold – East-Greenland.
The Arctic ocean is the smallest and coldest ocean on our planet. It occupies the Central part of the Arctic and is located North of the continents: Eurasia and North America. The shores of the Arctic ocean are heavily indented. Wide ducts it connects with the Atlantic ocean, and with the Pacific – through the narrow Bering Strait.
The bottom of the Arctic ocean has a rather complex structure: ocean ridges alternate with deep faults. A characteristic feature of the ocean – a large shelf, which occupies more than 1/3 of its area, a large depth in the Central part alternates with underwater ridges: Gakkel, Lomonosov, Mendeleev.
Throughout the year, Arctic air masses reign over the ocean. Most of the solar energy bounces off the ice. As a result, the average air temperature in summer is close to zero, and in winter ranges from -20 to -40 C. the warm North Atlantic current, which carries water masses from West to East, has a great influence On the formation of the climate in the Arctic ocean. From the Bering Strait to Greenland, the water moves in the opposite direction: from East to West. The ocean returns the excess water to the Atlantic in the form of a Transarctic current that begins in the Chukchi sea and stretches to the Greenland sea. In winter, ice covers up to 9/10 of the ocean surface. It is formed due to low temperatures throughout the year and the relatively low salinity of the surface waters of the ocean. Due to the fact that the transfer of ice to other oceans is quite limited, the thickness of long-term ice reaches from 2 to 5 meters. Under the influence of winds and currents, there is a slow movement of ice, resulting in hummocks – a cluster of ice blocks in the places of their collision.
Thanks to the warm North Atlantic current, the Norwegian and partly Greenland and Barents seas remain ice-free throughout the year. In addition to sea ice in the Arctic ocean are constantly icebergs. They break away from the numerous glaciers of the Arctic Islands.
Compared to other oceans, the organic world of the Arctic ocean is poor. The bulk of organisms are algae. They can live in cold water and have adapted even to life on ice.
The relative diversity of the organic world is observed only in the Atlantic ocean and on the shelf near the mouth of rivers. The Arctic ocean is caught: sea bass, cod, halibut, Pollock, saffron cod. From savcov are found in the Arctic: seals, walruses, polar bear. The banks are home to numerous sea birds.
The main shipping line is the Northern sea route, which runs along the coast of Eurasia.
Exploration of the Arctic ocean has always been difficult and dangerous. At the end of the XVIII century as a result of the voyage of the Russian expedition Vitus bereng Was compiled a reliable map of the Western ocean. And the first information about the nature of the near-polar regions was obtained only at the end of the XIX century. A lot of information gathered by the Norwegian Explorer Fridtjof Nansen and Russian polar Explorer Georgy Sedov.
In 1932, Russian scientist Otto Schmidt led an expedition on the icebreaker Sibiryakov, during which depth measurements were made, the thickness of the ice crust in different parts of the ocean was established, and weather observations were carried out.
Nowadays, aircraft and spacecraft are used to explore the ocean.
The Arctic ocean, despite its extreme coldness and severity, has always attracted people from all over the world. He beckons them now.