The main part of South Asian busy gently undulating plains, that are high relative to sea level — 500 m. there are a wide river valley and the volcanic plateau. To the North of the Deccan plateau, which occupies the vast expanses of the Indian subcontinent, extends the wide and flat Indo-Ganges plain, the Eastern and Western margins of which are the regions of Bengal and Punjab, which are very different from each other.
The Ganges river and its tributaries divide Bengal into large and small Islands, and its southern part is subject to sea tides. The Punjab plains are arid and heavily dissected by ravines. North of the Indo-Ganges plain is the highest mountain system in the world-the Himalayas.
In the Himalayas eleven peaks with a mark of more than 8000 m, the highest of which is Chomolungma (aka Everest, 8848 m) — the highest mountain in the world. The ridges of the Himalayas are always covered with ice caps and snowfields.
SOUTH AND EAST ASIA. CLIMATE
The countries of the region are located in sub-Equatorial and Equatorial climatic zones. The climate is hot and the average annual temperature is below 20°C (plus). With the exception of the Himalayas, where pronounced several climatic zones (with rising on height).
Climatic conditions are formed under the influence of Equatorial monsoons. In the mainland, there are sharp seasonal differences in the amount of precipitation. Annual rainfall and the duration of the wet season vary from one part of the subcontinent to another. But on the island’s precipitation falls more evenly, which is traditional for the Equatorial climate.
Humid Equatorial, variable-humid tropical forests and savannas predominate. South and East Asia are characterized by a rich and diverse flora and fauna. And on the Islands of the Malay archipelago, in addition to Asian tropical species, there are representatives in the fauna that are also found in Australia.
THE PEOPLES OF THE REGION
In South Asia, the peoples of the so-called Indo-Aryan group (Bengalis, Hindustani, Biharis, Rajisans, Marathas, Singhals, etc.) and Dravidian families (Tamils, etc.), and Tibetans.
South Asia is characterized by exoticism and diversity of culture and natural resources. The Hindu religion (especially in India and Sri Lanka) had a great influence on the unique culture of South Asia. Buddhism (now the most widespread in Sri Lanka and the Himalayan part of India) and Islam (now Bangladesh) also left their mark in India.
South and East Asia densely populated, but unevenly. Along the sea coasts and alluvial lowlands cultivated every piece of fertile land, the population density is high. The region has a lot of land with soils of volcanic origin. Such lands are productive, people live and work on them. There are many areas in the interior of the region that are relatively underutilized.