There are different classifications of countries by region. There are geographical, there is a UN classifier, there is copyright. Therefore, there is no doubt only that Southern Europe is the one near the Mediterranean sea because it is the sea that washes the South of Europe.
We will include in Southern Europe:
Andorra, the South of Spain and Portugal, Monaco,
States located on the Apennine Peninsula Italy, Vatican City, San Marino, Greece, island States of Malta and Cyprus.
Sometimes Southern Europe also includes Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the southern regions of Ukraine and the European part of Turkey. But if memory serves, we have already inscribed them In Eastern Europe.
An important feature of the situation of the countries of Southern Europe, which are located on the peninsulas and Islands of the Mediterranean sea, is that they are on the main sea routes from Europe to Asia, Africa, and Australia, and Spain and Portugal are also ports on the way to America. All these countries, their history, and the economy are closely linked to the sea.
Equally important is the fact that the region lies between the rest of Europe and North Africa. Although countries ‘ ties are carried out through the sea, these ties are multilateral and centuries-old. There were times when immigrants from Africa claimed supremacy in the region, then Vice versa — North Africa became colonies of Portugal, Italy, and Spain. And Malta is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, led by Great Britain, i.e. still a colony (to be honest).
The relief of the region is an alternation of lowlands, hilly ridges and individual mountain ranges up to 1000 m.
SOUTH EUROPE. CLIMATE
Southern Europe is a region with a predominance of subtropical climate. On the coast, it is dry and hot, especially in summer. Vegetation on the coast is almost absent, bare land and rocks. The waters of the Mediterranean sea will enjoy a pleasant temperature from may. The temperature in summer averages about + 24 °C, in winter it is quite cool — about +8C. Precipitation falls about 1000-1500 mm per year.
Southern Europe has a mountainous terrain and subtropical climate with dry summers form a kind of conditions for the formation of the river network. Rivers, as a rule, with a large slope and shallow channel. On many of them, especially on the Iberian Peninsula, in the lower reaches, there are rapids. The amount of water in the rivers varies greatly throughout the year. In winter, during the rains, the rivers are quite muddy due to the suspension from the banks and the bottom of the channel. In summer, the rivers become shallow, and some in the South of Italy and Greece in the summer completely dry up.
FLORA AND FAUNA
Even the names themselves are unusual: strawberry trees, stone oaks, myrtles, olives, grapes, citrus, Magnolia, cypresses, chestnuts, junipers. Animal world ROE deer, servals, screw-horned goats, foxes, lizards, wolves, badgers, raccoons. But places where it all grows or runs still to look — as it was written above, especially on the coast, the area is deserted from vegetation.
THE POPULATION AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
Traditionally, southern Europe has a high birth rate, but the natural population growth is low. Peoples: Spaniards, Italians, Portuguese, Greeks. Population density, from 10 and more people per km2 (someone wrote that this is a high density!? – See Asian countries). The predominant religion is Catholicism.
In most countries, agriculture, mining, animal husbandry, production of machinery and devices, fabrics, leather are common. Here, of course, grow grapes. Tourism is still popular, but if refugees from Arab countries occupy the territory, the situation may change.
List of countries and their capitals:
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: Sarajevo
- Albania: Tirana
- Cyprus: Nicosia
- Macedonia: Skopje
- San Marino: San Marino
- Serbia: Belgrade
- Slovenia: Ljubljana
- Croatia: Zagreb
- Montenegro: Podgorica
- Portugal: Lisbon
- Spain: Madrid
- Andorra: Andorra La Vella
- Vatican: Vatican city
- Greece: Athens
- Malta: city of Valetta