Access : ERK1|[sol]|2-induced phosphorylation of R-Ras GTPases stimulates their oncogenic potential : Oncogene

Personal subscribers to Oncogene can view this article. To do this, associate your subscription with your registration via the My Account page. If you already have an active subscription, login here to your nature.com account. View our privacy policy and use of cookies. If you do not have access to the article you require, you can purchase the article (see below) or access it through a site license. Institutions can add additional archived content to their license at any time. Recommend site license access to your institution. The Ras-related (R-Ras) isoforms TC21, R-Ras and M-Ras are members of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases. R-Ras family proteins are frequently overexpressed in human cancers, and expression of activated mutants of these GTPases is sufficient to induce cell transformation. Unlike Ras, few activating mutations of R-Ras proteins have been reported in human cancer, and very little is known about the regulation of their activity. In this study, we report that TC21 and R-Ras are phosphorylated on a conserved serine, Ser186 and Ser201, respectively, in intact cells. This residue is located in the C-terminal hypervariable region of the proteins and is not conserved in M-Ras. We show that the MAP kinases ERK1 2 phosphorylate TC21 and R-Ras on this C-terminal serine residue both in vitro and in vivo. Phosphorylation of R-Ras proteins does not affect their subcellular localization or stability but rather stimulates their activation. Phosphorylation-defective mutants of R-Ras and TC21 are compromised in their ability to promote cancer cell adhesion and migration invasion, respectively. Importantly, we show that phosphorylation of TC21 and R-Ras potentiates their tumorigenic activity in immunodeficient mice. Our results identify a novel regulatory mechanism of the small GTPases TC21 and R-Ras that controls their oncogenic potential. Source.


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