We have constructed retroviral vector td da Pr-RSV-C e and helper virus td da Pr-RSV-C e' PS'Neo based on the duck-adapted variant of Pr-RSV-C with the extended host ranger and its transformation-defective mutant. To decrease the risk of transducing cell proto-oncogencs, E-element, supposedly involved in this process, was deleted. In order to obtain helper cell line the QT6 cells have been transfected by helper phismid p td da Pr-RSV-C e'PS~Neo. Packaging cells produce viral proteins, including p27gag, but intact helper virus is not detectable in reverse trans criptaxe assay. Zoubak S, Rynditch A, Bernardi G. Compositional bimodality and evolution of retroviral genomes. Gene. 1992,119(2):207-13. Review. Shimada T. Targeted gene transfer into CD4 positive cells by HIV based vectors. Int Symp on Human Gene Therapy (Sept. 10-13, 1995). Inuyama and Nagoya, 1995: 29. Boerkoel CF, Federspiel MJ, Salter DW, Payne W, Crittenden LB, Kung HJ, Hughes SH. A new defective retroviral vector system based on the Bryan strain of Rous sarcoma virus. Virology. 1993,195(2):669-79. Kashuba VI, Zubak SV, Lazurkevich ZV, Ryndich AV, Kavsan VM. Structure of a new transformation-defective mutant of Rous sarcoma virus. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR. 1989,304(1):206-8. Bova-Hill C, Olsen JC, Swanstrom R. Genetic analysis of the Rous sarcoma virus subgroup D env gene: mammal tropism correlates with temperature sensitivity of gp85. J Virol. 1991,65(4):2073-80. Kashuba VI, Kavsan VM, Ryndich AV, Lazurkevich ZV, Zubak SV, Popov SV, Dostalova V, Glozhanek I. Complete nucleotide sequence of Rous sarcoma virus variants adapted to duck cells. Mol Biol (Mosk). 1993,27(2):436-50. Bodor J, Svoboda J. The LTR, v-src, LTR provirus generated in the mammalian genome by src mRNA reverse transcription and integration. J Virol. 1989,63(2):1015-8. Barsov EV, Hughes SH. Gene transfer into mammalian cells by a Rous sarcoma virus-based retroviral vector with the host range of the amphotropic murine leukemia virus. J Virol. 1996,70(6):3922-9. Federspiel MJ, Bates P, Young JA, Varmus HE, Hughes SH. A system for tissue-specific gene targeting: transgenic mice susceptible to subgroup A avian leukosis virus-based retroviral vectors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994,91(23):11241-5. Dezelee P, Barnier JV, Briest'ansk? J, Geryk J, Karakoz I, Michailik AA, Nehyba J, Yatsula BA, Rynditch AV, Calothy G, et al. New case of c-src gene transduction: the generation of virus PR2257. Folia Biol (Praha). 1994,40(5):211-23. Southern PJ, Berg P. Transformation of mammalian cells to antibiotic resistance with a bacterial gene under control of the SV40 early region promoter. J Mol Appl Genet. 1982,1(4):327-41. Moscovici C, Moscovici MG, Jimenez H, Lai MM, Hayman MJ, Vogt PK. Continuous tissue culture cell lines derived from chemically induced tumors of Japanese quail. Cell. 1977,11(1):95-103. Pogrebno? PV, Serov SM, Klenchin VA, Luk'ianov AV, Garmanchuk LV, Tarnavski? DV, Markeeva NV, Bykorez AI. Expression of the gene for transforming growth factor type alpha, transferred into A431 cells by a recombinant retroviral vector. Mol Biol (Mosk). 1993,27(4):833-8. Clark DP, Dougherty RM. Detection of avian oncovirus group-specific antigens by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Gen Virol. 1980,47(2):283-91. Kashuba VI, Zubak SV, Rynditch AV, Kavsan VM, Hlozanek I, Svoboda J. The nucleotide sequence of the region of src gene deletion in transformation-defective Rous sarcoma virus adapted to semi-permissive host cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989,17(8):3294. Emerman M, Temin HM. Genes with promoters in retrovirus vectors can be independently suppressed by an epigenetic mechanism. Cell. 1984,39(3 Pt 2):449-67. Emerman M, Temin HM. Quantitative analysis of gene suppression in integrated retrovirus vectors. Mol Cell Biol. 1986,6(3):792-800. Katz RA, Terry RW, Skalka AM. A conserved cis-acting sequence in the 5' leader of avian sarcoma virus RNA is required for packaging. J Virol. 1986,59(1):163-7. Savatier P, Bagnis C, Thoraval P, Poncet D, Belakebi M, Mallet F, Legras C, Cosset FL, Thomas JL, Chebloune Y, et al. Generation of a helper cell line for packaging avian leukosis virus-based vectors. J Virol. 1989,63(2):513-22. Dougherty JP, Temin HM. A promoterless retroviral vector indicates that there are sequences in U3 required for 3' RNA processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987,84(5):1197-201. Cosset FL, Ronfort C, Molina RM, Flamant F, Drynda A, Benchaibi M, Valsesia S, Nigon VM, Verdier G. Packaging cells for avian leukosis virus-based vectors with various host ranges. J Virol. 1992,66(9):5671-6. Cosset FL, Legras C, Chebloune Y, Savatier P, Thoraval P, Thomas JL, Samarut J, Nigon VM, Verdier G. A new avian leukosis virus-based packaging cell line that uses two separate transcomplementing helper genomes. J Virol. 1990,64(3):1070-8. Source.

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