Publishing Old Maps via the Internet: An Overview of Possibilities

Cartography is a science with wealthy history. In fact, the first drawings of mammoth hunters were the first maps. With the coming of digital technologies, almost every branch of science is being changed, including cartography. Computer technologies, which were used only for cartographic research, have gained the control of cartographic production now. After establishing digital cartography to the practical production in 90's, internet comes as an ideal medium for map presentation in the beginning of new century. Contemporary technology allows more than only map browsing. Cartographic data can be shared on the different servers and user can work with these data interactively in the internet environment. This paper just deals with contemporary possibilities of map data publishing on the internet. Maps are almost entirely made by computers today. Map drawing is mostly created as a vector file, with the old map scanning, we get a raster file. There are many possibilities of map production. I would like to enumerate basic groups of software useable in cartography: vector drawings programs (Adobe Illustrator, Corel DRAW, Macromedia FreeHand), CAD systems (Autodesk AutoCAD, Bentley MicroStation), specialized cartographic products (OCAD), geographic information systems (ESRI ArcGIS, Intergraph GeoMedia, MapInfo). Every group has specific advantages and disadvantages. If we scan old paper maps, we always get raster data format. Maps can be published in two fundamental forms, analog or digital. Printed (analog) maps are mostly created from vector data. For final adjustments there are used various DTP applications. Finally, data are converted into print format (PDF, PostScript) and transferred to the printing works. Digital data can be published in various desktop application formats or in the internet. Practically every software product works with its own vector or raster file format. Therefore, data publishing should be done in open data format (instead of many proprietary formats). Internet also needs standard formats for data publishing. If we are going to publish data in the internet, data must be converted very often. For vector graphics, there are SVG and GML formats, for raster images there are JPEG and PNG formats suitable for internet publishing. Concerning old maps publishing, we always work with raster images. Maps must be scanned in high quality and then modified for later publishing. If we want to use only static images and raw HTML, raster data should be only converted into JPEG or PNG and placed on the server. If we want to work with data more interactively (zoom, pan), some other application must be used. This application is mostly based on variable sending by the XHTML form. The application can only work with the raw image, without georeferencing (e.g. Zoomify). If we want to work with images in the coordinate system, we have to use powerful application called mapserver (UMN MapServer, ArcIMS, Geomedia WebMap, MapXtreme, and MapGuide). Mapserver also enables other data layers connection (either vectors or raster images), even data shared by other servers (within the frame of Web Map Services). With this functionality, we have simple GIS tool operated through internet. In the sample application, scanned maps of 2nd Military Mapping Survey of Austria-Hungary from the area of Czech Republic (1836-1852) were used. Data were georeferenced and are available in the internet in contemporary coordinate system S-JTSK (published by UMN MapServer). Data can be compared with the present state of the landscape by connecting other map layers (ortophoto maps, vector drawings, etc.) Technology-based management of Environmental Organizations using an Environmental Management Information System (EMIS): Design and development Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable. Source. Looking for vector maps of Germany (Deutschland Vektorkarten) for Adobe Illustrator?."


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