The only relevant parts that I am interested in are the outline of the island so I realize some manual work will be necessary where it is shaded orange, is there a way to handle the rest? First open the map in an image editor (GIMP), select by colors with some tolerance and select the black color. Invert selection and delete non-black stuff. Save as Tiff WITH NO COMPRESSION. r.in.gdal – import raster r.thin – Thins non-zero cells that denote linear features in a raster map. r.to.vect – Converts a raster map into a vector map layer. As an example, here is a real screenshot of vector output of your image after the procedure in GRASS: Georeference the image and capture by hand. This is by far the best way as it is less prone to error. We’re looking for long answers that provide some explanation and context. Don’t just give a one-line answer, explain why your answer is right, ideally with citations. Answers that don’t include explanations may be removed. Source.