Discuss the important developments in mapping in the following time periods: ancient and medieval, Renaissance, Enlightenment, 19 Discuss the things users might want in a projection: equal-area, conformality, equidistant, azimuthal, and geometry of rhumb lines, small or great circles. Know the 4 conformal map projections used by the military (Transverse Mercator, polar stereographic, Lambert conformal conic, and Mercator) Understand the following computer terms and how they apply to mapping: bit, byte, kilobyte, megabyte, vector, raster, binary, ASCII, dpi, compression (lossy and lossless). Discuss how the reflection coefficient is determined from the ratio of the difference of the impedeances over the sum of the impedances. Describe how real time GIS at sea can combine existing chart/map data, real time input from navigation data and other sensors, and other data sources to improve both navigation and military/science operations. Describe why data model design steps (external, conceptual, logical, and internal) are important to the creation of a GIS Differentiate the three measures of vertical elevation (ellipsoid/geodetic height, orthometric height, and geoid height) Understand that NIMA produces different classes of maps and charts, and that the projections and grids used vary in a systematic fashion. Discuss the types of nautical charts: sailing, coastal, approach, and harbor, in terms of their purpose and what they depict. Know that USGS uses a UTM projection and coordinates for its digital data, and how this compares with the NIMA use of lat/long coordinates. Discuss the challenges in taking map data and displaying it in the cockpit of an aircraft, especially during military operations Discuss the history of radar altimeters, and why the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission provided the best data compared to SEASAT, the Exact Repeat Mission, or the current TOPEX/POSEIDON. Know the components of an ECDIS system (hardware, software, ENC data in S57 format converted into SENC), and the precise legal requirements, including provisions for updating the chart data. Source.

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