In mathematics, computer science and graph theory, a distance matrix is a matrix (two-dimensional array) containing the distances, taken pairwise, of a set of points. This matrix will have a size of N×N where N is the number of points, nodes or vertices (often in a graph). In statistical analysis, change detection tries to identify changes in the probability distribution of a stochastic process or time series. In general the problem concerns both detecting whether or not a change has occurred, or whether several changes might have occurred, and identifying the times of any such changes. Specific applications may be concerned with changes in the mean, variance, correlation, or spectral density of the process. In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices, or less commonly matrixes) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions. The individual items in a matrix are called its elements or entries. An example of a matrix with six elements is Matrices of the same size can be added or subtracted element by element. The rule for matrix multiplication is more complicated, and two matrices can be multiplied only when the number of columns in the first equals the number of rows in the second. Recognition screensaver on a PC, in which the character responds to questions, e.g. ‘Where are you?’ or statements, e.g. ‘Hello. ‘]] In Computer Science, speech recognition is the translation of spoken words into text. It is also known as ‘automatic speech recognition’, ‘ASR’, ‘computer speech recognition’, ‘speech to text’, or just ‘STT’. Speech recognition (SR) is technology that can translate spoken words into text. Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. A statistician is someone who is particularly well versed in the ways of thinking necessary for the successful application of statistical analysis. Such people have often gained this experience through working in any of a wide number of fields. In pattern recognition and machine learning, a feature vector is an n-dimensional vector of numerical features that represent some object. Many algorithms in machine learning require a numerical representation of objects, since such representations facilitate processing and statistical analysis. When representing images, the feature values might correspond to the pixels of an image, when representing texts perhaps to term occurrence frequencies. Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, or¿in the case of sign languages¿the equivalent aspects of sign. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs: their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status. Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs. Speech is the vocalized form of human communication. It is based upon the syntactic combination of lexicals and names that are drawn from very large (usually to about 10,000 different words) vocabularies. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units. Source.