In linear algebra, a rotation matrix is a matrix that is used to perform a rotation in Euclidean space. For example the matrix rotates points in the xy-Cartesian plane counterclockwise through an angle ¿ about the origin of the Cartesian coordinate system. To perform the rotation using a rotation matrix R, the position of each point must be represented by a column vector v, containing the coordinates of the point. A rotated vector is obtained by using the matrix multiplication Rv. In computer vision a camera matrix or (camera) projection matrix is a matrix which describes the mapping of a pinhole camera from 3D points in the world to 2D points in an image. Let be a representation of a 3D point in homogeneous coordinates (a 4-dimensional vector), and let be a representation of the image of this point in the pinhole camera (a 3-dimensional vector). Source.