Georeferencing is the name given to the process of transforming a scanned map or aerial photograph so it appears “in place” in GIS. By associating features on the scanned image with real world x and y coordinates, the software can progressively warp the image so it fits to other spatial datasets. This tutorial will explain how to georeference a raster image in ArcGIS so it can then be used as an overlay or for digitizing purposes. This workshop provides an introduction to Geographic Information Systems software, including core concepts necessary to working with geographic information. QGIS is an open source GIS software package. Before you begin this workshop, you need to download and install QGIS software or be using a computer which already has QGIS installed. This workshop uses QGIS version 2.0 Dufour. This workshop provides an introduction to Geographic Information Systems software, including core concepts necessary to working with geographic information. ArcGIS is a widely used commercial GIS software package. Before you begin this workshop, you need to have access to ArcGIS for Desktop (version 10.2 is used in the workshop). The Map & Data Library website provides you with information about your options for accessing ArcGIS. This is a beginner’s guide to creating a point layer in ArcGIS 10.2 using the latitude and longitude of the locations you wish to display. The first part of this guide will walk you through creating an Excel file of coordinates found in decimal degrees that are set up and ready to be imported into ArcGIS. How to locate coordinates online will also be discussed. This guide will then walk you through bringing your data into ArcGIS and creating your point layer on top of a base layer of countries. You may have noticed that many GIS datasets contain information about a geographic extent that is larger than your area of interest. Your research may involve analysis of data related to a single municipality in Ontario, yet you have only been able to locate a dataset showing all municipalities located within the province. Alternatively, you may be interested in only displaying a selection of features on your completed map, such as the Canadian cities you have selected as case studies for your research. The new GeoGratis is a portal provided by the Earth Science Sector (ESS) of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). It combines the former GeoPub, Mirage and GeoGratis into a one-stop gateway to search, discover and download over 180,000 maps, data and publications. The original GeoGratis collection includes raster data, such as satellite images or scanned topographic maps, vector data, such as national-scale frameworks (grouped by theme), and a database of ground control points. FME (File Manipulation Engine) is a powerful software package that allows users to quickly convert spatial and non-spatial datasets into other formats to facilitate sharing and interoperability. One of its components, FME Quick Translator, is an easy-to-use utility that provides a straightforward translation workflow via a simple graphical user interface. This guide demonstrates how to use FME Universal Translator to convert geospatial data from one format to another using an older file format (ArcInfo Coverage, .e00) as an example. This guide, compiled by Alberta Auringer Wood of the Association of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives, provides recommended citation formats for a wide variety of geospatial data sources In order for many GIS functions to work properly, your datasets need to be stored in a common projected coordinate system. This guide will assist you with the projection process in ArcGIS. (Unsure of what the appropriate projection is for your area of interest? Refer to this help document or ask a staff member for assistance in helping you determine it.) Geocoding involves assigning latitude and longitude coordinates to an item described in terms of its postal address. There are different ways to geocode. This tutorial will describe how to geocode a set of Canadian addresses and displaying them on a google map using Google Fusion Tables. Note: To use Google Fusion Tables you must have a Google Account. If you do not have one, but would like to create one, you can follow this link: https://accounts.google.com/NewAccount Source.